Acute kidney injury
Acute kidney injury, also known as acute renal failure (ARF), is a sudden loss of kidney function. There are donate a kidney many ways in which this can happen. ARF can occur following:
– a sudden reduction in the flow of blood to the kidneys due to a traumatic injury with severe loss of blood
– damage to the kidneys due to shock from a severe infection
– damage from toxins or certain drugs
– obstruction of the flow of urine
– complications during pregnancy
Runners who don’t drink enough fluids when competing in long-distance endurance events can suffer a sudden breakdown of muscle tissue. The breakdown releases myoglobin, a protein found in muscle tissue which only appears in the bloodstream after muscles are injured; this protein can damage the kidneys severely and result in ARF.
Chronic kidney disease
Kidney damage that lasts longer than three months is known as chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is particularly dangerous because you may not have any symptoms until considerable (often irreparable) damage has been done.
The two most common causes of CKD are:
– diabetes (both types 1 and 2), and
– high blood pressure
Other causes of CKD include chronic viral illnesses (such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C), urinary tract infections within the kidneys themselves, inflammation following a strep infection, congenital defects, toxins, some medical drugs, and the use of recreational drugs that are injected. You can also damage your kidneys by eating too much animal protein and not drinking enough water.
Your kidneys are made up of millions of extremely small filtration units which purify your blood and send the waste products out into the urine. These tiny filtration units can be damaged by high glucose levels (diabetes) and high blood pressure (hypertension).
Unused glucose in your bloodstream is filtered by your kidneys and then normally reabsorbed back into the bloodstream. However there is a limit to the rate at which the kidneys can filter and return glucose. When this limit is exceeded—as it can be if you don’t get your diabetes under control—your kidneys become stressed from over-work and the glucose starts to spill into the urine.